Acid vs Base: Table of Differences between Acid and Base

Acid and base are the chemicals opposite to each other. Both of these have significant roles in chemistry and are vastly present in our daily lives. A reaction between an acid and a base is called neutralizing reaction as they neutralize each other. Read on to understand the differences between the two.

Table of Differences between Acid and Base
# Basis of Difference Acid Base
1. Chemical Bonding Acid is the substance that donates protons or accepts a pair of valence electrons to form a bond during chemical bonding. The base is the substance that accepts protons or donates a pair of valence electrons to form a bond during chemical bonding.
2. Measurement of Strength The strength of an acid is measured as its ability or tendency to lose a proton. The strength of a base is measured as its ability or tendency to accept or gain proton.
3. Hydrogen ion (H+) During a chemical reaction, acids donate hydrogen ions to the base. During a chemical reaction, the base accepts hydrogen ions from acid.
4. pH (concentration of hydrogen ions) When acid is dissolved in water it results in a solution that has hydrogen ion activity greater than in pure water. This means the pH is less than 7.0. When a base is dissolved in water it results in a solution that has hydrogen ion activity lesser than in pure water. This means the pH is higher than 7.0.
5. Taste The taste of acid is sour. The taste of bases is bitter.
6. State Depending on the temperature, acids can occur in all three states – solid, liquid, and gas. Bases normally occur in solid-state. Ammonia is one of the exception that occurs in the gaseous state.
7. Effect on Phenolphthalein Phenolphthalein, an acid-base indicator, remains colorless with acid. A basic solution changes the color of Phenolphthalein into pink.
8. Litmus test Acids turn litmus paper or litmus solution to red color. Bases change litmus paper or litmus solution to blue color.
9. Methyl Orange Test An acidic solution turns methyl orange into red color. Methyl orange remains orange with a basic solution.
10. Universal indicator test Yellow and Red color in the universal indicator test indicates an acidic solution. Blue and violet color in the universal indicator test indicates a basic solution.
11. Dissociation reaction When mixed with water, acids dissociate hydrogen ions (H+). When mixed with water, bases dissociate hydroxide ions (OH-).
12. Reaction with metals When an acid reacts with metals it gives out H2 gas. Bases do not react with metals.
10. Structure of Chemical Formulae The chemical formulae of most of the acids begin with H e.g. HCl, HNO3, etc. Acetic acid (CH3COOH) is one of the exception. The chemical formulae of bases end with OH e.g. NaOH, KOH, etc.
11. Strength The strength of an acid depends on the concentration of hydrogen ions. The strength of a base depends on the concentration of hydroxyl ions.
12. Physical features Acids are corrosive in nature. Bases feel slippery on fingers.

 

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