Acid and base are the chemicals opposite to each other. Both of these have significant roles in chemistry and are vastly present in our daily lives. A reaction between an acid and a base is called neutralizing reaction as they neutralize each other. Read on to understand the differences between the two.
|Basis of Difference
|Acid is the substance that donates protons or accepts a pair of valence electrons to form a bond during chemical bonding.
|The base is the substance that accepts protons or donates a pair of valence electrons to form a bond during chemical bonding.
|Measurement of Strength
|The strength of an acid is measured as its ability or tendency to lose a proton.
|The strength of a base is measured as its ability or tendency to accept or gain proton.
|Hydrogen ion (H+)
|During a chemical reaction, acids donate hydrogen ions to the base.
|During a chemical reaction, the base accepts hydrogen ions from acid.
|pH (concentration of hydrogen ions)
|When acid is dissolved in water it results in a solution that has hydrogen ion activity greater than in pure water. This means the pH is less than 7.0.
|When a base is dissolved in water it results in a solution that has hydrogen ion activity lesser than in pure water. This means the pH is higher than 7.0.
|The taste of acid is sour.
|The taste of bases is bitter.
|Depending on the temperature, acids can occur in all three states – solid, liquid, and gas.
|Bases normally occur in solid-state. Ammonia is one of the exception that occurs in the gaseous state.
|Effect on Phenolphthalein
|Phenolphthalein, an acid-base indicator, remains colorless with acid.
|A basic solution changes the color of Phenolphthalein into pink.
|Acids turn litmus paper or litmus solution to red color.
|Bases change litmus paper or litmus solution to blue color.
|Methyl Orange Test
|An acidic solution turns methyl orange into red color.
|Methyl orange remains orange with a basic solution.
|Universal indicator test
|Yellow and Red color in the universal indicator test indicates an acidic solution.
|Blue and violet color in the universal indicator test indicates a basic solution.
|When mixed with water, acids dissociate hydrogen ions (H+).
|When mixed with water, bases dissociate hydroxide ions (OH-).
|Reaction with metals
|When an acid reacts with metals it gives out H2 gas.
|Bases do not react with metals.
|Structure of Chemical Formulae
|The chemical formulae of most of the acids begin with H e.g. HCl, HNO3, etc. Acetic acid (CH3COOH) is one of the exception.
|The chemical formulae of bases end with OH e.g. NaOH, KOH, etc.
|The strength of an acid depends on the concentration of hydrogen ions.
|The strength of a base depends on the concentration of hydroxyl ions.
|Acids are corrosive in nature.
|Bases feel slippery on fingers.
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