List of Disease Causing Viruses, Their Transmission Mode and Prevention

Viruses are among the nature’s biggest mysteries. These protein coated pieces of DNA/RNA can sometimes wreck havoc on other life forms on the planet. This includes humans as well. Recently, the coronavirus pandemic was caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus which brought the whole world to a standstill. Viral diseases have always been affecting humans. We are presenting a list of important virus caused diseases and how to prevent them.

List of Important Viral Diseases

Virus Name Disease Transmission Prevention
SARS-CoV-2 Covid-19 Droplet contact Social distancing; frequent handwash
Poliovirus Poliomyletis Fecal-oral Polio vaccine; avoiding contaminated food and water
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) AIDS Sexual contact; blood; breast milk Practicing safe sex; blood product screening; avoiding shared needles/syringes
Measles virus Measles Droplet contact MMR vaccine; quarantining the sick; avoiding contact with the sick
Mumps virus Mumps Droplet contact MMR vaccine; quarantining the sick; avoiding contact with the sick
Rabies virus Rabies Animal bite; droplet contact Rabies vaccine; avoiding rabid animals
Rubella virus Congenital rubella Respiratory; droplet contact MMR vaccine; avoiding close contact with the sick
Influenza virus Flu Droplet contact influenza vaccine; hand washing; covering mouth when coughing/sneezing
Hepatitis A virus Acute hepatitis Fecal-oral Hepatitis A vaccine; avoiding contaminated food/water
Hepatitis B virus Acute hepatitis; chronic hepatitis; hepatic cirrhosis Bodily fluids; sexual contact Hepatitis B vaccine; avoiding shared needles/syringes; practicing safe sex
Hepatitis C virus Acute hepatitis; chronic hepatitis; hepatic cirrhosis Blood; sexual contact Avoiding shared needles/syringes; practicing safe sex
Varicella-zoster virus Chickenpox; herpes zoster Droplet contact; direct contact Vaccine; avoiding close contact with the sick
Smallpox virus Smallpox (now eradicated) Inhalation of airborne Variola virus; droplet contact Smallpox has now been eradicated. Last known cases was in 1978 in United Kingdom
Ebola virus Ebola Direct contact with the blood or other body fluids of a person who has developed symptoms of the disease. Supportive care
SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1) Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Droplet contact Supportive care
Marburg virus Marburg virus disease (MVD) There is no treatment, only immediate supportive care
Hantavirus Hantavirus Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS); Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Contact with rodent urine, saliva, or feces Eliminate or minimize contact with rodents
Dengue virus (DENV) Dengue fever Aedes mosquitos, particularly A. aegypti. Protection from the bites of the mosquitoes.
Rotavirus Rotaviral enteritis (nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea and low-grade fever) Fecal-oral route Rotavirus vaccine
MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-related CoronaVirus) Middle East respiratory syndrome Contact with camels Avoid contact with camels.
Nipah virus Nipah virus infection Exposure to meat of sick pigs, plant products infected by bats. Avoid exposure to bats in endemic areas and sick pigs.
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